My last post featured music constructed around a repeating bass line, or ostinato. We listened to Johann Pachelbel’s famous Canon in D as well as passacaglias by Handel and Bach. Now, let’s return to the ostinato with another type of musical composition that was popular in the Baroque period, the chaconne.
Like the passacaglia, the repeating bass line of the chaconne gave Baroque composers a great opportunity to write endlessly inventive variations. Most chaconnes are built on a four note scale that descends from the tonic (the home pitch of any key) to the dominant (the fifth scale degree). This simple four note pattern creates its own satisfying drama. Listen to the chaconne bass line. Can you feel the pull of the lowest note (the dominant) back to the first note (the tonic)? With each repetition of this bass line, the music moves away from “home” and then returns.
Chaconne in G Minor…Tomaso Antonio Vitali (1663-1745)
This piece was ascribed to Vitali by the nineteenth century violinist Ferdinand David, but it is unclear who actually wrote it. Here is a performance by the great David Oistrakh:
Chaconne from “Roland”…Jean Baptiste Lully (1632-1687)
Suzuki violin students know Jean Baptiste Lully because of his Gavotte in Book 2. Lully was one of the most important French Baroque composers and was especially influential in developing French opera. This chaconne comes from the Third Act of his opera, Roland. If you like this music, you might also enjoy another chaconne Lully wrote for the opera, Phaeton.
Partita in D Minor for Solo Violin BWV 1004…Johann Sebastian Bach (1685-1750)
Bach wrote six unaccompanied sonatas and partitas for violin. A partita is a suite, or collection of pieces. This monumental chaconne comes at the end of the Partita in D Minor. In a Washington Post interview, violinist Joshua Bell called this chaconne “not just one of the greatest pieces of music ever written, but one of the greatest achievements of any man in history. It’s a spiritually powerful piece, emotionally powerful, structurally perfect.”
In a letter to Clara Schumann, the composer Johannes Brahms wrote: “On one stave, for a small instrument, the man writes a whole world of the deepest thoughts and most powerful feelings. If I imagined that I could have created, even conceived the piece, I am quite certain that the excess of excitement and earth-shattering experience would have driven me out of my mind.”
There are many great recordings of Bach’s Sonatas and Partitas for Solo Violin. Recordings I recommend include performances by Henryk Szeryng, Hilary Hahn, Julia Fischer, Ilya Kaler, Gidon Kremer, Arthur Grumiaux and Mela Tenenbaum. Tenenbaum’s recording features a separate CD with her thoughts on the music and is worth exploring for any musician who is studying solo Bach.
Here is a performance by the legendary Russian violinist, Nathan Milstein.
Violin Concerto…John Adams (b. 1947)
II. Chaconne: Body through which the dream flows
In 1993 American composer John Adams wrote a chaconne for the second movement of his Violin Concerto. It’s easy to hear echoes of the past in this haunting and atmospheric music. In what ways is this chaconne similar to its Baroque predecessors? In what ways is it different? What feelings does the music evoke?
Pearls (from the album, Love Deluxe)…Sade (Released in 1992)
Interestingly, this song from the British band, Sade is built on the same descending chaconne bass line that Vitali, Lully and other Baroque composers used.